(1) Visual: Elizabeth A. Armstrong
(2) Citation: Armstrong, A. Elizabeth, Hamilton, Lauren, and Brian Sweeney. Sexual Assault on Campus: A Multilevel, Integrative Approach to Party Rape. Soc Probl 2006; 53 (4): 483-499. doi: 10.1525/sp.2006.53.4.483. Web. 28 Feb. 2017.
(3) Summary: This scholarly article is written about the results from a study that was conducted as an ethnographic observation in a midwestern university. The team conducted student interviews in a "party dorm" about various aspects that pertain to sexual assault. They found that sexual assault is surprisingly a predictive outcome due to factors of being in a "party dorm" atmosphere and surrounded by individuals who interact with one another for the wrong reasons.
(4) Author(s): Elizabeth A. Armstrong is a sociologist who writes and researches about topics such as gender, sexuality, culture, and social movements. She has been a professor at the University of Michigan and the University of Indiana in the Sociology departments. She is knowledgeable in her field due to her accreditations at Harvard University and the extensive amount of research she has done in these topics.
(5) Key terms:
Gender Inequality: refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender roles.
Peer Culture: is defined as a stable set of activities or routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children and youth produce and share with peers.
1. "Colleges and universities have been aware of the problem of sexual assault for at least 20 years, directing resources toward prevention and providing services to students who have been sexually assaulted...Rates of sexual assault, however, have not declined over the last five decades (Adams-Curtis and Forbes 2004:95; Bachar and Koss 2001; Marine 2004; Sampson 2002:1)" (484).
2. "Ayres Boswell and Joan Spade (1996) suggest that sexual assault is supported not only by “a generic culture surrounding and promoting rape,” but also by characteristics of the “specific settings” in which men and women interact (p. 133)" (485).
3. "Sexual assault education should shift in emphasis from educating women on preventative measures to educating both men and women about the coercive behavior of men and the sources of victim-blaming" (496).
(7) Value: This scholarly article helps me understand reasons why sexual assault occurs at college. Due to the environment, drinking culture, and lack of regulations of the universities there is an increased amount of incidents that occur. Although my paper isn't on how sexual assault occurs, it is a useful resource in understanding why victims and universities respond the way that they do.